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Kvantita, kvalita a kybernetický mechanicizmus

Otázky marxistickej filozofie, 20 (1965), 2, 179-186.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
To draw an analogy between the cybernetical comprehension of a system and the comprehension of quality distorted in a stalinistic way, and then — based on this analogy — to brand cybernetics with the mark of mechanicism can be done only by one who did not grasp the theoretical and methodological foundation of cybernetics. Cybernetics itself in its essence is not mechanistic; however, there may be authors who give it a mechanistic interpretation. In such cases scientific argument requires us to set up an interpretation of our own against that of those other authors; our interpretation must be based on a deep knowledge of cybernetics if philosophy is requested to be of any use at all for special scientific disciplines. Cybernetics can be applied not only in order to intensify research by methods adequate to the given scientific discipline into relations and mechanisms already well known and thoroughly analyzed; it is a new scientific discipline with new methods of detection of new interdependences, relationships and laws in fields — mostly boundary — not yet explored or only less explored; therefore any contrary view curbs the development of cybernetics and its applicability in other scientific disciplines. Exaggerated emphasis of one single feature in the characteristics of cybernetics, i. e., to allege that cybernetics do „only“ investigate into quantitative and structual laws, has induced some special scientists and philosophers to think that cybernetics was examining only „pure“ quantitative and structural laws wihtout taking into account their dialectical implication with quality, with the qualitative aspect of the phenomena examined; as a matter of fact, we cognize quality through quantity, function, structure, through the quantitative, functional and structural laws, and just for this reason cybernetics brings along many new elements to the cognition of reality; just the same as it is not possible to absolutize quality and qualitative analysis, it is neither possible to absolutize quantity and quantitative analysis since solely in dialectical unity do they lead to the comprehension of the phenomenon examined. As to cybernetics itself, in its present stage of development there is no point any more to speak of qualitative differences between machine, living organism and society since its theory is being developed on an abstract system which had developed by the abstraction from the substantial and energetical essence of these objects; qualitative differences are to be looked at not earlier than when cybernetics are going to be applied in other scientific disciplines concerned with the research into living organism and society, or possibly some other features which cybernetics is not concerned with.
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