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The Human Bio-Phenomenon from the Point-of-View of the Philosophy of History

(Original title: Ľudský biofenomén z hľadiska historického materializmu)
Filozofia, 27 (1972), 1, 32-44.
Type of work: Papers and Discussions
Publication language: Slovak
Why does the human bio-phenomenon become the theme of philosophy of history? In each view of the world there are statements directing man’s attitudes to his biological side, to the problems of health and disease to the problem of death. In philosophical reflection there is yet the possibility to include these problems into the perspective of philosphy of history. This perspective is expressed by the question: what is the function of health and disease in the social development? how do the social-economic formations determine a certain disease? how do the problems of health and disease participate in the conscious creation of history? These questions are presented in connection with the contemporary process of civilization and with the capacity of the society to decide consciously about the question of its further development as bio-species; there are more and more increasing tendencies that the human society may transcend from the uncontrolled adaptation to the environment to a conscious one. The openness of man towards the world and the problem of adaptation. The Marxist theory of man is more and more being demonstrated as a generally world-view and methodological background of experiments of partial branches of science to solve the relation of man and environment in its totality. The naturalist-anthropological idea of the open character of man towards the world, i. e. that man is not closed towards the world by his instincts, is transformed in Marxism by the category of practice. The practice creates the historically changeable socio-natural environment of man and constitutes man as a historical objective-social being. In solving the relation of human organism and environment these are especially important for medicine: 1. the significance of psyche for physiological processes. Psyche is a „social channel“ between the human organism and environment; 2. creation of a new natural environment by the contemporary process of civilization. It is a characteristic feature of human adaptation that man does not only adapt himself to the environment, but that he also adapts it to his needs. The consciousness is an important agent in the mechanism of determining components of the relation of human organism and environment. The negative sides of the process of civilization upon human health and the historical topicality of realizing the communist ideal of a manysidedly developed personality enforce a more and more scientifically controlled adaptation of man, creating of favourable socio-natural conditions for such a development of personality. The creation of such conditions is referred to by the term „healthy society“. „Healthy society" and the conscious creation of history. The term „healthy society“ is an axiological term, it has world-view value, it expresses the projection of man and society. By the formation of socialist society the society was constituted as a historical subject projecting and controlling its life. A conscious creating of history by the socialist society must comprise not only the conscious form of its social interactions, but also the complex of natural-social being of men, i. e. a conscious creation of human life.
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