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Semislabý a historický aspekt vedeckej metódy

Filozofia, 28 (1973), 3, 231-245.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
The paper reassumes the study „The Character of Scientific Method“ (Filozofia, 1972, No 6). Its task is to prove that the scientific method as a whole cannot be either strong, or semi-strong, nor weak method. In the strong method everything is determined at the beginning by the starting-point and by the unambiguous graduality; in our case there are determined all true statements touching the complex investigated as well as the mode of their acquirement. In the semi-strong method (e. g. in the ordinary axiomatic method using modus ponens) all true statements are determined by the startingpoint as for the contents (but the, mode of their acquirement is not unambiguously determined). That is why neither in the one nor in the other method there is room for hypothesis, yet the mentioned sets of statements are closed immediately by the starting point. The weak method has not a systemic character but only a registrational, a purely empirical one and that is why there is no room in it either for hypothesis as a system creative principle of envisaging. No set can be closed by the weak method. By the semi-weak method a set (of true statements) is not closed at the beginning, but only gradually, which is how a noncompleted, open „set“ is being achieved that at a certain stage of its development closes and by a new hypothesis it opens again. Science is, from this point of view, a pulsating open system. In the paper the properties of this system are being investigated, among others also its unalgorithmability. The semi-weak method is an empirical-rational one. In the further part some theories of the growth of science and its historical and epoch-making character is being investigated.
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