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Fundamentálna ontológia Martina Heideggera

Otázky marxistickej filozofie, 20 (1965), 6, 557-569.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
The study deals with the btsic notions in Heidegger’s philosophy by means of which Heidegger endeavours to build up a fundamental ontology. A positive appraisal is given of his efforts to prove that the question of essential being has occasionally been wrongly contrued in modern philosophy. This drawback is equally apparent in the rationalistic, empirical and irrationalistic models of reality as it is in the mechanistico-materialistic models. In this connection the author takes up a critical stand towards the traditional interpretation of the theory of reflection. In a further section, the affinity of views between Heidegger and Marxism on the question of the so-called authentic philosopphy, is pointed out. Heidegger’s relation to Husserl’s phenomenology is analyzed in the chapter on „Existentional Analysis“. Stress is laid in particular, on the point where Heidegger abandons Husserl’s rationalistically-oriented endeavours to set up a „pure” philosophy and confines phenomenologic analysis to a description of the „Existentionalists“. On subsequent pages the author examines Heidegger's attitude on human authenticity and criticises his inconsistency. He expresses the view that the notion of human authenticity remains an empty idea as, long as we fail to answer satisfactorily the question relative to the structure of the processes of transformation of the relevant reality into the framework of human being. The author takes up a critical stand likewise towards Heidegger’s notion of Dasein from an analysis of which' it ensues that man is not primarily an active transformer of his own self and of reality which encompasses him, but a „metaphysical creator“ whose essence consists in that he is a „messenger of being“.
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