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Vzťah pravdy a omylu vo vývoji poznania

Otázky marxistickej filozofie, 20 (1965), 6, 569-582.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
According to the realistic theory of truth which teaches that truth is agreement between thinking and reality, the subject in truth appears as thinking directly towards the object and grasps it in its original form, whilst in error, he is under his own specificity and remains reserved in his own self. According to the author, the thinking of the subject is always specific, because it is dependent upon the specificity of his sensory experience. Hence, truth is complete agreement between thinking an experience only, while it grasps reality but to a greater or lesser degree. The magnitude of this grasping, that is, perfection of the reflection of reality in it, depends upon the level of experience which deepens qualitatively as well as quantitatively in the course of the history of scientific knowledge and this along with scientific practice by which it is ecuired. As a matter of fact, practice and experience, their penetration into reality, condition the verifying possibilities of every epoch and are capable to rid hypothesis of its subjectivity to a limited extent only. Neither is logical consistency of hypothesis with actual true notions of other scientific branches, capable completely to desubjectivize it. Hypothesis is therefore, desubjectivized only partially. The remainder is, however, latent, momentally unseen and hence, hypothesis is declared as theory congruent with reality. By and by however, as the verifying means become perfected, it turns into error which reveals — again, only partially — its latent subjectivity and shows that truth had not agreed with reality but with experience only. Truth, therefore, does not stand beside error, but turns into error. Error — but not every one — is disclosed, unmasked truth, whose subjectivity has become actual. Truth is potential error. Every truth is thus relative only and not absolute. Since it has to be explained in conditions from which it has sprung, it is simultaneously concrete. When accepted universally, it is termed objective. But because of the fact that relative truths reflect objective reality, as a rule, more and more faithfully, as manifested in the spreading of their sphere of adequacy, the measure of their relativity diminishes and they participate in a steadily increasing degree in ideal absolute truth. In this manner, scientific perception becomes constantly perfected.
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