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Publication Details

To the Conception of the Social Development and the Regularities in Socialism

(Original title: K pojetí spoločenského vývoje a zákonitostí za socialismu)
Filozofia, 27 (1972), 3, 265-275.
Type of work: Papers and Discussions
Publication language: Czech
The conception of social development and regularities generally and in socialism respectively is, due to its relevance, an object of a permanent interest of theory. The paper is, in this connection, concentrated first of all upon the criticism of the views, according to which the development in society is not to be seen as natural-historical process that is controlled by the laws independent upon the will and consciousness of men, because this is considered as observative materialism ascribed namely to Stalin. With regard to this some examples are pointed out in this paper that bear witness of the fact that the starting, basic standpoint is that of Marx’s and then of Lenin’s when analyzing and explaining the social development. Observative materialism cannot be seen in the natural-historical character of social development, but rather in the „fashionable“ conceptions that see the world as the antithesis of subject and object. On the contrary, for surmounting the observative materialism and thus for the dialectical-materialist conception of the world as Marx had outlined it e. g. in his. Theses on Feuerbach, the world and the society are seen in the dialectically contradictory unity of consciousness and being, while even the social being is conceived subjectively as a practical tenacious human activity. It is a conscious practical being. The man, the subject, is thus a „constituent part“ of social being in the Marxist (dialectical) materialist conception, he is a „constituent part“ of his practical-objective productive activity. But this fact has not resulted in a dependence of social laws upon the will and consciousness of men. It is characteristic of social laws (if they are to be laws at all) that they are inner, substantial relations determining the social being and consciousness. To deny this „aspect of the matter“ is, after all, to, refuse regularities in society on the whole, even if it is interpreted as the alternative character of historic necessity. Namely in the conditions of the building up of socialist society the origin of which is strongly marked by the elements of subjectivism and revolutionary romanticism, it is extraordinarily relevant to enforce sober scientific approaches to the analysis of social conditions and of their development on the basis of dialectical-materialistic conception of social development. The way of a positive support of practice by the theory can be seen only in the most careful investigation of the really existing material conditions and preconditions, in the search for adequate forms of relations in production supported by the knowledge of their regularities, and thus in the creating of the basis of the whole social structure. On the contrary, the conception of social „laws“ dependent upon the will and consciousness of men enables an apology of any shortcomings and impedes thus their critical surpassing in favour of progressive positive changes.
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