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Publication Details

Dialectics, Logic and Methodology of Science in the USSR

(Original title: Dialektika, logika a metodológia vedy v ZSSR)
Filozofia, 27 (1972), 6, 532-548.
Type of work: Papers and Discussions
Publication language: Slovak
In this paper the authors have attempted to analyze the trends and tendencies o£ ideas under the influence of which a conception of methodology of sciences in the USSR has begun to be created and elaborated, respectively the dialectics, logic and methodology of science (which has been formed on principles fundamentally different from the positivist philosophy, logic and methodology of sciences). The dialectics, logic and methodology are to be seen as the result of a very rapid development of Marxist philosophy, formal logic and special sciences in the sphere of the structure and genesis of scientific cognition that started namely in the 1960s and has still been going on. It is to be comprehended as a new scientific branch that originates on the border-line of philosophy and special sciences, first of all of dialectics and formal logic. The nucleus of dialectics, logic and methodology of sciences is in the logic of science and the unity of two components: the formal logic and its applications and dialectics as the theory of cognition and logic. General methodology has also aspects concerning the use ot the methods of sociology, psychology, cybernetics and theory of information, semiotics, theory of systems and other special sciences. This is the expression of the fact that the general methodology of sciences sets the task of a complex analysis of scientific cognition and, at the same time, forms the theoretical-methodological starting point for building up special methodologies. In the paper, the authors have aimed at the analysis of the question of the place of dialectics, logic and methodology of science in the history of Soviet philosophy, at the analysis of the Marxist criticism of „Naturphilosophie“ and of neo-positivist conception of philosophy, logic and methodology of science, at the analysis of the Soviet discussion about the object of Marxist conception of dialectics and logic of science in which the basic principles of Marxist methodology of sciences are formed, at the analysis of the basic trends in the development of Marxist logic of science, at the formal — logical analysis of the language of science, dialectics of scientific cognition and philosophical — methodological problems of special sciences.
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