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Publication Details

The Notion of Method

(Original title: Pojem metódy)
Filozofia, 27 (1972), 3, 225-244.
Type of work: Papers and Discussions
Publication language: Slovak
The paper is a sequel to the study „The Science and its Object“ (Filozofia, 1971, No 3). The author investigates the strong and semi-strong methods that are in principle algorithmicable. Method is defined as a one-branch or many-branch successiveness of operations (steps) by which we reach the aim while the successiveness can be expressed by means of precise rules. The successivenesses and operations may be either single-valued or multi-valued (i. e. such where by an element or by a step more or no elements, resp. steps, are added). Multivalued operations and successivenesses are called multioperations and multisuccessivenesses; there, as they entail divergent branches, do not lead to one aim themselves. Therefore, if they are to be methodologically important, they have to be linked with single-valued operations and successivenesses. Some of them are introduced in the paper. The methods in which all operations and successivenesses are single-valued are called strong. The methods in which some, or, except for the last ones, all operations or successivenesses or both of them (except for the last ones) are multi-valued are called semi-strong. The methods in which we must count with the possibility of more preliminary aims (e. g. with a bigger number of hypotheses from among which none had been yet chosen) are called semi-weak. The science from the point of view of itshistorical development and taken as a whole cannot be apprehended adequately by strong and semi-strong methods. In the paper there are net models of strong and semi-strong methods being investigated; it is shown that all these methods can be expressed by a „normal“ net. Further, in the paper there are being investigated the relations among the components of the method (the starting point, the proceeding and the aim) and especially the cases when one of the components is unknown. In the last part there are being investigated the relations between the method and the set ofsystems that are investigatable by the given method. The method adequate to the system mirrors the structure or the structure of structures of the system. The idea of a disconnection of method with system is refused as non-scientific.
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