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Vývin filozofickej analýzy v analytickej filozofii

Filozofia, 28 (1973), 5, 543-558.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
Analytical philosophy belongs to the most important trends of contemporary non-marxist philosophy of the 20th century represented by a lot of well-known philosophers and by a number of book publications and magazine articles. The marxist critique of this newest trend in non-marxist philosophy is the most topical now. What is the central problem of all streams of analytical philosophy is the philosophical analysis of language, from which also its name has been derived. So far no uniform conception of the philosophical analysis oi language has been elaborated. Its apprehennon, the technique of operation, and even. the object of philosophical analysis have been changing. Analytical philosophy expresses the conviction that all philosophical problems can be solved by means oi the analysis of language, which becomes thus a universal method of analytical philosophers. Analytical philosophy has passed, in its relatively short history, through several Stages oi development Its beginning is connected with the names of G. E. Moore, B. Russell and L. Wittgenstein, who introduced the method of philosophical-logical analysis of language into philosophy. The second stage is analytical philosophy in the form of logical positivism and of logical cmpirism. Here the constructing of artificial language models and the creating ol ideal language are being emphasized. Recently, analytical philosophy has been developed in the form of so called linguistic philosophy, which is aimed at philosophical anztlysizr o! natural language, first of all at an investigation of the use of language entities. The interest in an investigation of language in various aspects is a positive feature of analytical philosophy. What is a negative feature of this philosophical trend is an absolutization of the orientation of philosophy towards the research of language, resulting from a radical reduction of the object of philosophy to the language (be it the language of science or the natural language). The marxist critique is directed just at this fact and the marxist philosophy builds up the philosophy of language as a part of its activity, which, however. does not exhaust its whole interest.
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