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Institucionální odcizení a svoboda člověka

Filozofia, 22 (1967), 6, 607-617.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
The first part of the present paper deals with endangerment of the development of man and freedom of personality in institutions and organizations of contemporary industrial capitalisticsociety. From among critical comments of Western theoretists of organization such as C. W. Mills, K. Boulding, R. W. Presthus, D. Riesman, W. H. Whyte, W. G. Bennis, R. K. Merton, R. Seidenberg, P. Blan etc., especially following negative trends are emphasized: a) Increase of privileged technocracy and political bureaucracy; b) tendency of the organizational heads towards the monopolization of power; c) strengthening of trends towards an organized totality, unification and conformism, d) Restriction and suppression of individual independence and initiative. In the second part, the main problems of free assertion of man in the system of institutions and organizations of the Stalinite model of socialism are outlined and basic questions of further investigations are defined. In the third part the author deals with the question of the application of Marxian categories of objectification, materialization (Verdinglichung) and alienation in the institutional and organizational relations of man. At the same time three basic determinations of man are pointed out — by his generic essence, social situation and personal properties and interests. Institution and organization are then defined and stabilizing, rationalizing and humanizing functions are numbered among their fundamental functions. Qualitative differences in their functions or dysfunctions in macro-, medium-, and micro-connections are pointed out. On the basis of the opinions of prominent Marxist investigators of the problems of objectification, materialization (Verdinglichung) and alienation (particularly of G. Lukacz, H. Lefebvre, L. Goldmann, H. Marcuse, A. Schaff, E. Fischer, and R. Supek), the connection and gradualness of the process of subject-object are pointed out from which a positive realization of human potencies arises first (Verwirklichung), then their externalization (Entäusserung) takes place which changes into their negative materialization (Verdinglichung) and culminates in manifestations of alienation (Entfremdung). Finally the forms of manifestations and the consequences of separation of man in various spheres of institutional-organizational relations are specified. In the fourth part some suorces of institutional alienation and bureaucratic deformations in socialism are very briefly and generally touched upon. In the fifth part the questions are finally solved of necessity and possibility of freedom and emancipation of man in industrial and organizational frameworks of socialism. Contemporary humanizing endeavour of some theoretists of organization in the West is pointed out (A. Gouldner, McGregor, Ch. Algyris, R. Likert, R. Golembiewski, W. Bennis, M. Crozier). The author numbers among three basic general presuppositions of emancipation of man in the system of socialistic institutions and organizations 1. Macrostructural dependence of alienating and emancipative features of socialism on its structural model and that of destination. 2. Appropriate understanding and pervasion of the relation between freedom and organization in the building of socialism. 3. Right understanding and mastering of functional micromechanisms and developmental dynamism of institutional and organizational medium-structures of socialism.
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