In the paper the author argues that the scientific thought as such can be located into periods and in each of these periods a substance, law, structure, etc. typical for the given period, prevails and also an adequate research programme and an interpretation of the world corresponding to them. He shows that sharp frontiers between these stages of scientific thinging cannot be set. In dialectical thinking the instruments of former ways of thinking are used, they are, however, extended with their dialectical aspect or explication. The author called attention to various classifications of scientific thought and he especially analyzed the typology which is applied in biological sciences.